Difference between revisions of "First Lord of the Admiralty"

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(First Lords of the Admiralty, 1853 –1919)
(First Lords of the Admiralty, 1853 – 1919)
 
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{{Royal Navy}}
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The '''First Lord of the Admiralty''' was the minister responsible to Crown and Parliament for the administration of the Naval Service of the United Kingdom, encompassing the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines and other services.  By custom and design he was the pre-eminent Lord Commissioner on the [[Board of Admiralty]].
  
The '''First Lord of the Admiralty''' was responsible for the general direction and supervision of all business relating to the [[Royal Navy]].  He also dealt personally with all matters relating to promotions and removals from the service of naval and marine officers; honors and rewards [royal yachts and admiralty yacht]; appointment of Admirals and officers in command [including Engineers, Rear-Admirals, Surgeons-General and Deputy Surgeons-General, and staff appointments
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==History==
of the Royal Marines; [[Chaplain of the Fleet (Royal Navy)|Chaplain of the Fleet]], appointment and entry of] naval chaplains and instructors; civil appointments and promotions (higher posts) [nomination to naval cadetships and to assistant clerkships, R.N.].  
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In its obituary of First Lord [[George Ward Hunt|G. Ward Hunt]] in 1877 ''The Times'' opined that the office "is, perhaps, one of the least enviable in the Cabinet and most open to criticism."<ref>"Death of Mr. Ward Hunt" (Obituaries).  ''The Times''.  Monday, 30 July, 1877. Issue '''29007''', col F, p. 9.</ref>
  
==First Lords of the Admiralty, 1853 &ndash; 1919==
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==Duties==
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{| class="collapsible wikitable collapsed" style="width: 50%"
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! 1861.<ref>"Appendix No. 1.  Distribution of Duties."  ''Report of the Select Committee on the Board of Admiralty'' (1861).  p. 639.</ref>
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|-
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| General Direction and Supervision.
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|-
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| Political Questions.
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|-
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| Navy Estimates and Financial Questions.
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|-
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| Appointments to Commands.
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|-
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| Appointment of Chaplains and Naval Instructors.
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|-
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| Civil Appointments.
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|-
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| Promotions.
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|-
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| Honours and Distinctions.
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|-
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| Foreign Navies and Intelligence.
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|-
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| Slave Trade.
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|-
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| Harbours of Refuge.
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|-
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| Railways.
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|-
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| New Works.
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|-
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| Mersey Conservancy.
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|}
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{| class="collapsible wikitable collapsed" style="width: 50%"
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! July, 1866.<ref>Greene Papers.  National Maritime Museum.  GEE/2.</ref>
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|-
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| General Direction and Supervision.
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|-
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| Political Questions.
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|-
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| Navy:<br>  Estimates and Financial Questions.<br>  Foreign Navies and Intelligence.<br>  Slave Trade.<br>  Harbours of Refuge.<br>  Railways.<br>  New Works.
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|-
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| Appointments to Commands.
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|-
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| Appointments of Chaplains and Naval Instructors.
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|-
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| Civil Appointments.
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|-
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| Promotions.
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|-
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| Honours and distinctions.
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|-
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| Mersey Conservancy.
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|}
 +
 
 +
{| class="collapsible wikitable collapsed" style="width: 50%"
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! December, 1868.<ref>Greene Papers.  National Maritime Museum.  GEE/2.</ref>
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|-
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| General Direction and Supervision.
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|-
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| Political Questions.
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|-
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| Appointments and Promotions&mdash;Private Office.
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|}
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{| class="collapsible wikitable collapsed" style="width: 50%"
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! April, 1875.<ref>{{TNA|ADM 1/6316.}}.</ref>
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|-
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| 1.&mdash;General Direction and Supervision.
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|-
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| 2.&mdash;Political Questions.
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|-
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| 3.&mdash;Promotions.
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|-
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| 4.&mdash;Honours.
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|-
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| 5.&mdash;Civil Appointments.
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|-
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| 6.&mdash;Mersey Conservancy.
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|-
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| 7.&mdash;Appointments to Commands, &c.
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|-
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| 8.&mdash;Appointments [of] Commanders to Coast Guard.
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|-
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| 9.&mdash;Appointments of Chaplains.
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|-
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| 10.&mdash;Appointments of Naval Instructors.
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|}
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{| class="collapsible wikitable collapsed" style="width: 50%"
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! 7 July, 1885.<ref>{{TNA|ADM 116/3392.}}</ref>
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|-
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| 1.&mdash;General Direction and Supervision.
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|-
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| 2.&mdash;Political Questions.
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|-
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| 3.&mdash;Board Questions.
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|-
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| 4.&mdash;Promotions and Removals from the Service of Naval and Marine Officers.
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|-
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| 5.&mdash;Honours and Rewards.
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|-
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| 6.&mdash;Royal Yachts, including Appointment of all Officers.
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|-
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| 7.&mdash;Civil Appointments and Promotions, except as provided under Controller and Civil Lord.
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|-
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| 8.&mdash;Mersey Conservancy.
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|-
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| 9.&mdash;Nomination to Naval Cadetships and to Assistant Clerkships, R.N.
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|-
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| 10.&mdash;Appointments of&mdash;<br>Flag Officers.<br>Captains.<br>Officers Commanding Ships.<br>Commanders to Coast Guard.<br>Chaplains.<br>Naval Instructors.<br>Inspectors and Deputy Inspectors of Hospitals and holding Civil Appointments.
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|-
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| 11.&mdash;Staff Appointments of the Royal Marines.
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|}
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{| class="collapsible wikitable collapsed" style="width: 50%"
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! August, 1912.<ref>{{TNA|ADM 116/3392.}}  The distribution of 27 June, 1917, is identical.</ref>
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|-
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| General Direction and Supervision of all business relating to the Navy.  Political and Board Questions.
 +
|-
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| Promotions and Removals from the Service of Naval and Marine Officers.  Honours and Rewards.
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|-
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| Royal yachts, and Admiralty Yacht, including Appointment of all Officers.
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|-
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| Appointment of Flag Officers and Officers in Command, including Engineer Rear-Admirals, Surgeons-General, and Staff Appointments of Royal Marines.
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|-
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| Chaplain of the Fleet, appointment of, and entry of Naval Chaplains and Instructors.
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|-
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| Civil Appointments and Promotions (higher posts).
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|-
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| Naval Cadetships and Nominations to Assistant Clerkships, R.N.
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|}
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==First Lords of the Admiralty==
 
Dates of appointment given:
 
Dates of appointment given:
  
*The Right Honourable Sir James Graham, Bart., M.P., 5 January, 1853.<ref>Hamilton.  p. 317.</ref>
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*The Right Honourable Sir James Graham, Bart., M.P., 5 January, 1853<ref name=ham>Hamilton.  p. 317.</ref>
*The Right Honourable Sir Charles Wood, Bart., M.P., 8 March, 1855.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*The Right Honourable Sir Charles Wood, Bart., M.P., 8 March, 1855<ref name=ham/>
*The Right Honourable Sir John Pakington, M.P., 8 March, 1858.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*The Right Honourable Sir John Pakington, M.P., 8 March, 1858<ref name=ham/>
*The Right Honourable The Duke of Somerset, 28 June, 1859.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*The Right Honourable The Duke of Somerset, 28 June, 1859<ref name=ham/>
*The Right Honourable Sir John Pakington, M.P., 13 July, 1866.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*The Right Honourable Sir John Pakington, M.P., 13 July, 1866<ref name=ham/>
*The Right Honourable H. T. Lowry Corry, M.P., 8 March, 1867.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*The Right Honourable H. T. Lowry Corry, M.P., 8 March, 1867<ref name=ham/>
*The Right Honourable H. C. Erskine Childers, M.P., 18 December, 1868.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*The Right Honourable H. C. Erskine Childers, M.P., 18 December, 1868<ref name=ham/>
*[[George Joachim Goschen, First Viscount Goschen|The Right Honourable George J. Goschen]], M.P., 9 March, 1871.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*[[George Joachim Goschen, First Viscount Goschen|The Right Honourable George J. Goschen]], M.P., 9 March, 1871<ref name=ham/>
*The Right Honourable G. Ward Hunt, M.P., 3 March, 1874.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*The Right Honourable [[George Ward Hunt|G. Ward Hunt]], M.P., 3 March, 1874<ref name=ham/>
*The Right Honourable W. H. Smith, M.P., 14 August, 1877.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*The Right Honourable W. H. Smith, M.P., 14 August, 1877<ref name=ham/>
*The Right Honourable The Earl of Northbrook, 12 May, 1880.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*The Right Honourable The Earl of Northbrook, 12 May, 1880<ref name=ham/>
*[[Lord George Francis Hamilton|The Right Honourable Lord George Hamilton]], M.P., 1 July, 1885.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*[[George Francis Hamilton|The Rt. Hon. Lord George Hamilton]], M.P., 1 July, 1885<ref name=ham/>
*The Right Honourable The Marquess of Ripon, 16 February, 1886.<ref>''The Naval Staff of the Admiralty''.  p. 118.</ref>
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*The Right Honourable The Marquess of Ripon, 16 February, 1886<ref name=staff>''The Naval Staff of the Admiralty''.  p. 118.</ref>
*The Right Honourable Lord George Hamilton, M.P., 6 August, 1886.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*The Right Honourable Lord George Hamilton, M.P., 6 August, 1886<ref name=staff/>
*[[John Poyntz Spencer, Fifth Earl Spencer|The Right Honourable The Earl Spencer]], 23 August, 1892.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*[[John Poyntz Spencer, Fifth Earl Spencer|The Right Honourable The Earl Spencer]], 23 August, 1892<ref name=staff/>
*The Right Honourable George J. Goschen, M.P., 4 July, 1895.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*The Right Honourable George J. Goschen, M.P., 4 July, 1895<ref name=staff/>
*[[William Waldegrave Palmer, Second Earl of Selborne|The Right Honourable The Earl of Selborne]], 20 November, 1900.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*[[William Waldegrave Palmer, Second Earl of Selborne|The Right Honourable The Earl of Selborne]], 20 November, 1900<ref name=staff/>
*[[Frederick Archibald Vaughan Campbell, Third Earl Cawdor|The Right Honourable The Earl Cawdor]], 27 March, 1905.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*[[Frederick Archibald Vaughan Campbell, Third Earl Cawdor|The Right Honourable The Earl Cawdor]], 27 March, 1905<ref name=staff/>
*[[Edward Marjoribanks, Second Baron Tweedmouth|The Right Honourable The Lord Tweedmouth]], 21 December, 1905.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*[[Edward Marjoribanks, Second Baron Tweedmouth|The Right Honourable The Lord Tweedmouth]], 21 December, 1905<ref name=staff/>
*[[Reginald McKenna|The Right Honourable Reginald McKenna]], M.P., 16 April, 1908.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*[[Reginald McKenna|The Right Honourable Reginald McKenna]], M.P., 16 April, 1908<ref name=staff/>
*[[Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill|The Right Honourable Winston L. S. Churchill]], M.P., 24 October, 1911.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*[[Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill|The Right Honourable Winston L. S. Churchill]], M.P., 24 October, 1911<ref name=staff/>
*[[Arthur James Balfour, First Earl of Balfour|The Right Honourable Arthur J. Balfour]], M.P., 27 May, 1915.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*[[Arthur James Balfour, First Earl of Balfour|The Right Honourable Arthur J. Balfour]], M.P., 27 May, 1915<ref name=staff/>
*[[Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson|The Right Honourable Sir Edward Carson]], M.P., Q.C. 11 December, 1916.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*[[Edward Henry Carson, Baron Carson|The Right Honourable Sir Edward Carson]], M.P., Q.C. 11 December, 1916<ref name=staff/>
*[[Eric Campbell Geddes|The Right Honourable Sir Eric C. Geddes]], M.P., 6 September, 1917.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*[[Eric Campbell Geddes|The Right Honourable Sir Eric C. Geddes]], M.P., 6 September, 1917<ref name=staff/>
*[[Walter Hume Long, First Viscount Long|The Right Honourable Walter H. Long]], M.P., 16 January, 1919.<ref>Ibid.</ref>
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*[[Walter Hume Long, First Viscount Long|The Right Honourable Walter H. Long]], M.P., 16 January, 1919<ref name=staff/>
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* [[Arthur Hamilton Lee, First Viscount Lee of Fareham]], 1921 &ndash; 1922
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* [[Leopold Charles Maurice Stennett Amery]], 1922 &ndash; 1924
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* [[Frederic John Napier Thesiger, First Viscount Chelmsford]], 1924
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* [[William Bridgeman, First Viscount Bridgeman]], 1924 &ndash; 1929
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* [[Albert Victor Alexander, First Earl Alexander of Hillsborough]], 1929 &ndash; 1931
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* [[Joseph Austen Chamberlain]], 1931
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* [[Bolton Meredith Eyres-Monsell, First Viscount Monsell]], 1931 &ndash; 1936.
  
 
==Footnotes==
 
==Footnotes==
Line 38: Line 178:
 
==Bibliography==
 
==Bibliography==
 
{{refbegin}}
 
{{refbegin}}
*{{BibUKNavalStaff}}
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*{{HamiltonAdmiralty}}
*Hamilton, C. I. (2011).  ''The Making of the Modern Admiralty: British Naval Policy-Making, 1805-1927''.  Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.  ISBN 978-0-521-76518-3.
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*{{UKNavalStaff}}
 
{{refend}}
 
{{refend}}
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{{Template:Board of Admiralty}}
  
 
[[Category:First Lords of the Admiralty|*]]
 
[[Category:First Lords of the Admiralty|*]]

Latest revision as of 20:22, 28 December 2015

The First Lord of the Admiralty was the minister responsible to Crown and Parliament for the administration of the Naval Service of the United Kingdom, encompassing the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines and other services. By custom and design he was the pre-eminent Lord Commissioner on the Board of Admiralty.

History

In its obituary of First Lord G. Ward Hunt in 1877 The Times opined that the office "is, perhaps, one of the least enviable in the Cabinet and most open to criticism."[1]

Duties

First Lords of the Admiralty

Dates of appointment given:

Footnotes

  1. "Death of Mr. Ward Hunt" (Obituaries). The Times. Monday, 30 July, 1877. Issue 29007, col F, p. 9.
  2. "Appendix No. 1. Distribution of Duties." Report of the Select Committee on the Board of Admiralty (1861). p. 639.
  3. Greene Papers. National Maritime Museum. GEE/2.
  4. Greene Papers. National Maritime Museum. GEE/2.
  5. The National Archives. ADM 1/6316..
  6. The National Archives. ADM 116/3392.
  7. The National Archives. ADM 116/3392. The distribution of 27 June, 1917, is identical.
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 Hamilton. p. 317.
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 9.11 9.12 The Naval Staff of the Admiralty. p. 118.

Bibliography

  • Hamilton, C. I. (2011). The Making of the Modern Admiralty: British Naval Policy-Making, 1805-1927. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521765183. (on Amazon.co.uk).
  • Naval Staff, Training and Staff Duties Division (1929). The Naval Staff of the Admiralty. Its Work and Development. B.R. 1845 (late C.B. 3013). Copy at The National Archives. ADM 234/434.


Board of Admiralty
Civilian Lords
First Lord of the Admiralty
Civil Lord of the Admiralty
Additional Civil Lord of the Admiralty (1882 – 1885, 1912 – 1917)
Controller (1917 – 1918)
Naval Lords
First Naval Lord (– 1904) • First Sea Lord (1904 – 1917) • First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff (1917 –)
Second Naval Lord (– 1869, 1872 – 1904) • Second Sea Lord (1904 – 1917) • Second Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Personnel (1917 –)
Third Naval Lord (– 1869) • Third Lord and Controller (1869 – 1872) • Third Naval Lord and Controller of the Navy (1882 – 1904) • Third Sea Lord and Controller of the Navy (1904 – 1912) • Third Sea Lord (1912 – 1917) • Third Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Matériel (1917 – 1918) • Third Sea Lord and Controller of the Navy (1918 –)
Junior Naval Lord (– 1904) • Fourth Sea Lord (1907 – 1917) • Fourth Sea Lord and Chief of Supplies and Transport (1917 –)
Fifth Sea Lord (1917) • Fifth Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Air Service (1917 – 1918)
Staff Lords
Deputy First Sea Lord (1917 – 1919)
Deputy Chief of Naval Staff (1917 –)
Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (1917 –)
Secretaries
First Secretary to the Board of Admiralty (– 1869) • Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Admiralty (1869 – 1904) • Parliamentary and Financial Secretary to the Board of Admiralty (1904 –)
Second Secretary to the Board of Admiralty (– 1869) • Permanent Secretary to the Board of Admiralty (1869 – 1877, 1880 –)
Naval Secretary to the Board of Admiralty (1872 – 1882)